Also Shumer, Sumeria, biblical Shinar (Sumerian: ki-en-gir).
The Sumerians originated in the Zagros around Lake Orumiyeh and then migrated to the lowlands of Susiana (biblical Elam) and, of course, Sumer proper.
The Sumerians later spread to many places including the Persian Gulf (in ancient times called the Erythrean Sea), the coastal regions of Red Sea, Punt, Phoenicia, and also (for a short while) Egypt.

Although the territory of Sumer proper is relatively confined, the area affected by Sumerian cultural and economic influence is huge.

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this entry was last changed Nov 12, 2005